Bonding Layered Curriculum

C Layer (maximum of 80 points)
This layer tests basic knowledge and understanding. If you can successfully articulate the concepts clearly and accurately in each activity you can earn a grade no higher than a "C+" or 79.49 points. Activities in bold must be completed but you are free to choose any combination of other activities.

B Layer (maximum of 10 points)
In this layer you will apply the information learned in the C layer using problem solving and other higher level thinking tasks. If you can successfully articulate the concepts in each activity and have got full points on the C layer you can earn a grade no higher than a "B+" or 89.49 points. Activities in bold must be completed but you are free to choose any other combination of activities.

A Layer (maximum of 10 points)
In this layer you will demonstrate critical thinking and analysis skills. If you can successfully articulate the concepts and have got full points on the C and B layer you will earn an "A" or 100 points.


As you finish layer you need to orally defend your understanding (called the oral defense) to the teacher. Points are awarded in the following way.

100% You can explain and articulate all the major concepts in the activity clearly and accurately.
80% You can explain most of the concepts in the activity clearly, but some concepts lack depth of understanding.
70% You have difficulty explaining many of the key concepts in the activity and demonstrate at least one major misunderstanding or misconception.
60% You have an understanding that is minimal, incomplete or filled with misconceptions or misunderstandings.


You will have 4 lessons to work on this in class. All oral defenses must be completed before October Break. At teacher discretion you will have one opportunity to re-defend a level A or B activity. You will not be able to re-defend level C activities. Re-defending an activity is considered extra makeup work and is to be done outside of class after October Break.

Note Taking

Please make sure you keep organized and detailed notes because you will be using these to review for your end of unit Bonding test and Semester 1 exam.


It is expected that you will spend at least half an hour per class on homework


Your text book, and the internet are your major sources. If you find a excellent website please tell Ms Jordan so she can add it to the resource list. Some useful websites are:
Ionic Bonding
Recommended by Whitney
Recommended by Johnny. Nice flow chart on how to identify the different intermolecular forces.

Layer C (80 points)

Activities in bold are required
1. Using examples distinguish between a molecule, compound, element and ion. (4 points)
2. Using water as an example, distinguish between a molecular and structural formula. (3 points)
3. Distinguish between a covalent and ionic bond. (3 points)
4. Watch the covalent bonding video created by General Chemistry students last year. Identify 5 factual pieces of information. (3 points)
5. Draw Lewis dot diagrams to represent the sharing of electrons to form covalent bonds in water, ammonia, oxygen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide. (5 points)
6. Distinguish between the bonding and non-bonding (or lone pairs) of electrons. (3 points)
7. Make 3d molymod models of water, ammonia, oxygen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide. Draw structural formula to represent their correct shape. (5 points)
8. Using examples distinguish between single, double and triple covalent bonds. (3 points)
9. Define electronegativity. Make a table comparing the differences in the electronegativities of pairs of N, H, O, Cl, O, and S atoms. (3 points)
10. Using suitable examples, deduce a general relationship between the type of bond (ionic, polar covalent and non-polar covalent) and electronegativity. (5 points)
11. Compare the types of intermolecular and intramolecular bonds (forces) in water and sodium chloride. (3 points)
12. Describe Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory (VSEPR). (5 points)
13. Watch the video on VSEPR theory created by students in General Chemistry last year and describe the different kinds of electron pair repulsion described by VSEPR theory. (3 points)
14. Choose one of the videos made by students in General Chemistry last year and assess the video using the rubric provided. (3 points)
15. Using labeled electron shell diagrams show how electrons are transferred between sodium and oxygen atoms to form sodium oxide. (5 points)
16. Using electron shell diagrams show how electrons are transferred between magnesium and chlorine atoms to form magnesium chloride. (5 points)
17. Deduce the ions formed when the elements in groups 1,2 and 3 lose electrons and when elements in groups 5 and 6 gain electrons. Account for why group 8 (18) elements don’t lose or gain electrons (3 points)
18. Using the ion chart provided make a set of flash cards with the names and symbols of the polyatomic and monatomic ions (needed for Layer B). (5 points)

19. Complete the writing chemical formula worksheet (5 points)
20. Make a general rule that could be used for identifying whether a compound is ionic or covalent by looking at it formula. (3 points)
21. State the relationship between the group on the periodic table and the number of valence electrons. (3 points)
22. Give a detailed account of all the important information the chemical concepts represented in the cartoon. (4 points)

23. Salt, NaCl has an important role in human history. Research where the word salary comes from. (2 points)
24. Recommended a web site for learning about the types of intermolecular forces or for deducing the shape of a molecule. Justify your choice. (2 points)
25. Make a table comparing the shape, number of lone pairs of electrons, number of bonding pairs of electrons and bond angle between attached atoms for: carbon dioxide, water, hydrogen sulfide, boron trifluoride, methane, and ammonia.
26. Plot a graph of the data showing the relationship between the molar mass and boiling point of the group 7 halogens. Describe the relationship. (2 points)

Layer B (10 points)

Activities in bold are required
1. Watch the video on Intra and inter molecular forces created by students in General Chemistry last year and explain, using suitable examples how permanent dipole, van der Waals forces and hydrogen bonds are formed. Compare their relative strengths (2 points)
2. Using VSEPR theory deduce with a reason the angle between the bonded atoms in water, ammonia, carbon dioxide and methane. (2 points)
3. Draw Lewis dot diagrams for the hydronium, H3O+, ammonium, NH4+, and hydroxide, OH- ions. Using the carbonate ion and carbon dioxide as examples, distinguish between “regular” covalent and coordinate (dative) covalent bonds. (2 points)
4. Deduce and explain the polarity of water, ammonia, carbon dioxide, and methane from their shape. (2 points)

5. Using Lewis dot diagrams explain why the bond angle between the attached atoms in SiH4 is greater than that in PH3. (2 points)
6. Go to: and choose the left hand tab that says Quicktime videos. Watch the formation of sodium chloride video. Describe two qualitative observations. Write a balanced equation for the reaction. (2 points)
7. Using the image describe the nature of the ionic lattice in Lithium Fluoride. (2 points)

8. Using the image describe the nature of the structure and bonding in solid iodine. (2 points)

9. Explain in terms of structure and bonding why solid water (ice) floats on liquid water. (2 points)
10. Read the poem and with reference to the line number/s, describe and explain two of the concepts about ionic bonding demonstrated in the poem. For example: Line 8, “its fun to ionize!” describes the concept of ionization. Ionization is where an atom gains or loses electrons to become stable with a full outer shell. In the poem the chlorine atom is being ionized when it gains an electron. (2 points)

Layer A (10 points)

1. Demonstrate and explain the reasons for the differences in the solubility of sodium chloride and iodine in water. Be careful not to touch the iodine crystals.(10 points)
2. Complete the graphing exercise that shows the relationship between the intermolecular forces and boiling point of a hydride. (10 points)

3. Make a 3d model to represent the lattice structure of sodium chloride. Be able to explain the nature of the structure and bonding. (10 points)
4. Demonstrate how a sodium chloride solution conducts electricity but solid sodium chloride does not. Explain the reason for the difference in conductivity. (10 points)
5. Make copper sulphate crystals using the method provided. Record your qualitative observations at each stage of the process.
(10 points)