Unit Objectives

At the end of this unit you should be able to:

Ionic Bonding

1. Describe an ionic bond as the intramolecular electrostatic attraction between two oppositely charged ions.
2. Describe how ions can be formed as a result of electron transfer.
3. Deduce which ions will be formed when elements in groups 1, 2 and 3 lose electrons and when elements in groups 5 and 6 gain electrons.
4. Using an ion chart deduce the formulas and names of ionic compounds between monatomic and polyatomic ions.
5. Describe the general lattice structure of a group I metal halides.

Covalent Bonding

1. Describe a covalent bond as the intramolecular electrostatic attraction between pairs of electrons and positively charged nuclei.
2. Describe how a covalent bond is formed as a result of electron sharing between non-metal atoms. Both single, double, triple bonds should be considered.
3. Deduce the formula and name of common covalent molecules.
4. Draw Lewis (electron dot) structures of molecules and ions for up to four electron pairs on each atom.
5. Predict the shape (linear, bent, trigonal pyramid, tetrahredral) and bond angles for simple covalent molecules using the VSEPR theory.
6. Define electronegativity and compare the relative electronegativity of two or more elements based on their positions in the periodic table.
7. Identify the relative polarity of bonds and type of bonding formed based on electronegativity values.
8. Predict whether a compound would be more likely to be ionic or covalent from the position of its elements on the periodic table, or from their electronegativity values.
9. Predict whether a covalent molecule is polar or non-polar from its molecular shape.

Intermolecular forces

1. Describe using labeled diagrams the differences between the three type of intermolecular forces between covalent molecules (hydrogen bond, permanent dipole attractions and temporary dipoles/Van Der Waals) and explain how they arise.
2. Be able to identify the type of intermolecular forces between polar and non-polar covalent molecules.
3. Compare the relative strength of intramolecular and intermolecular forces.

Physical Properties

1. Explain in terms of the intermolecular and intramolecular forces the reason for the differences in the melting points, boiling points and electrical conductivity of ionic and simple covalent compounds.
2. Explain the difference in the electrical conductivity of solid and molten group I metal hydrides.
3. Identify trends and patterns in the physical properties of ionic, and covalent substances.

Layered Curriculum Unit

Bonding Videos

Videos created by students to teach students about bonding

Ionic Formula

Covalent Bonding

Another good video on covalent bonding is by studio4learning
Also from the same people Lewis Structures

Shapes of molecules

Electronegativity & Polarity

Organic Chemistry

Intra & Intermolecular Forces

Lattice Structures


external image msword.png Bonding Assessment Questions.doc